Job analysis is defined as a method of determining the nature of a job, study observation, describing proper information relating to the specific job nature. There are different types of job analysis. some of which are discussed below.
Observation is a method of job analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of job analysis. Observation method is again of 3 types: direct observation, work method analysis and critical incident technique
- In direct observation the employees are observed for their performance of their duties and record the observations.
- Work method analysis is used to describe repetitive and manual production jobs. Work method analysis is again of two types; time and motion study, and micro-motion analysis. In time and motion study by using a stopwatch the activity of a worker is recorded to note the time it takes to carry out separate elements of job. In micro-motion analysis, a moving camera is used to record worker activities.
- In critical incident technique, behavior of the worker is observed. In terms of behavior the results are judged as effective or ineffective.
Interview is a method in which the discussion takes place between interviewer and job occupants. Interviews are again two types: individual interview and group interview.
- In individual interview, the interview is held for a single job occupant.
- In group interview, the interview is held for two or more job occupants.
Job analysis is done by long term employees who are familiar with job, this type of interviews are called as technical conferences. Interviews may be unstructured or structured.
- Unstructured interviews revolve around some questions to detect a candidate’s qualification. In this the questioning is spontaneous.
- Structured interview is otherwise called as standardized interview. In this the interview objectives and appointment process are carefully planned. Here the questions are predetermined and relevant to the job criteria.
Here, a list of questions are prepared asking the workers to answer the questions which describe the work related issues, responsibilities etc. Both structured or unstructured questionnaires may be prepared for this purpose.
The observation is purely based on time here. Using a stopwatch worker’s each step in a job is observed.
Performance based method
Here the quantity and quality levels of a job duty are observed. The organization uses these standards to assess the employees.
An employee records all the activities which are performed by him or her in a diary which includes the amount of time taken to perform each activity.